Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice

ISSN: 2630-5984

Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

Sündüs Yerdelen
Department of Elementary Science Education, Kafkas University, Kars Turkey
Adam McCaffrey
Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Robert M. Klassen
Department of Education, University of York, York, UK


This study investigated the longitudinal association between students’ anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that procrastination significantly increased over the semester, while academic anxiety decreased. Students’ procrastination and anxiety were positively correlated at the beginning of the semester; however, the trajectories of procrastination and anxiety were not predicted from initial levels of these variables. Moreover, at the initial measurement period, high levels of anxiety and procrastination were significantly related to low levels of self-efficacy for selfregulation, whereas the rate of change in anxiety and procrastination over time were not predicted by students’ initial levels of self-efficacy for self-regulation.

Procrastination, Anxiety, Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, Longitudinal study, Latent growth curve modeling.