Development of a Self-Efficacy Scale toward Piano Lessons
M. Kayhan KurtulduDepartment of Music Education, Fatih Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon Turkey
Damla BulutDepartment of Music Education, Faculty of Education, Ömer Halisdemir University, Niğde Turkey
This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine students’ levels of self-efficacy toward piano lessons. The sample consisted of 456 university-level piano students enrolled in Music Education programs. Experts in language and the field of music were consulted to establish content validity of the items included in the scalar survey applied as a research instrument. Furthermore, a KMO (Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin) sample adequacy test was carried out in the data analysis phase; Bartlett’s test was applied to specify the level of factorability for the scale; a principle components factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out for the items in the scale; the total correlation of the items was determined; and correlation measurements between subtitles and total points of the scale were performed. In addition, the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient test was applied to determine the scale reliability. To specify the internal consistency and reliability of the scale, the alpha test focused on subtitles, in particular. Additionally, test-retest, test reliability, split-half and cross-validation analyses were carried out to test the validity and reliability of the scale. At the conclusion of these analyses, the “Piano Lesson Self-Efficacy Scale” was accepted as a valid and reliable measurement tool.