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Flipped classrooms, flipped learning, blended learning, higher education, student-centred learning
Despite being widely adopted in higher education to support student-centred learning, the pedagogical design of flipped classrooms has been criticised as lacking in theoretical framing. This study proposes that the pedagogical dimensions of personalisation, higher-order thinking, self-direction, and collaboration can be used as theoretical lenses to deconstruct how flipped classroom practices support student-centred learning. Through a systematic review of 56 cases from 51 studies of flipped learning implementation published in peer-reviewed articles, this study found that flipped classrooms personalise learning through resource and teacher access, develops higher-order thinking through problemsolving, and engages students in collaborative learning through both peer groups and design groups. Trends of positive student learning outcomes are more consistent among cases that support collaborative learning and student selfdirection of learning performance review by repeated application and remediation. Nevertheless, majority of the cases reflect students having limited personalisation of learning choice and structured collaborative processes are seldom used apart from the few cases implementing team-based learning. The theoretical applications of the four pedagogical dimensions as well as the implications for the future research and practice of flipped classrooms are discussed.